Citicoline: A Powerful Brain Nutrient
CITICOLINE is a powerful brain nutrient that supports:
- Mental energy
- Overall cognitive health
Citicoline, also known as CDP-Choline, is an endogenous nucleotide involved in brain energy metabolism. Citicoline is currently available in 65 countries and is approved as a prescription medication in some European countries and throughout Asia. In the United States, citicoline is a GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe)-Approved dietary ingredient. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) shows that only 8% of US adults consume the recommended amount of choline on a daily basis. Citicoline is a source of dietary choline that provides additional benefits beyond choline supplementation, including the generation of phospholipids and support of phospholipid metabolism. Unfortunately, CDP-choline is only available in small amounts in food.
1-2 CAPSULES DAILY
THERE ARE NEARLY 700 PUBLICATIONS SUPPORTING NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT WITH CDP-CHOLINE INCLUDING:
Mechanism of Action
Various Adjunctive Applications
After oral ingestion, citicoline is hydrolyzed in the small intestine and liver into two major metabolites: cytidine and choline. The cytidine component offers an advantage over choline supplementation alone. Cytidine and choline enter the systemic circulation, where cytidine is further metabolized into uridine. Both uridine and free choline cross the blood-brain barrier. Uridine is the molecule responsible for increasing brain levels of norepinephrine and dopamine, improving mitochondrial function, and boosting energy production in the brain.
Oral administration is most common because its bioavailability is approximately 92%.
Cerenx® (Sodium Citicoline) is a medical food indicated for the distinct nutritional requirements of patients with neurodegeneration, cerebral ischemia, and mild cognitive impairment. Cerenx® is intended for use under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional.
|Neurotransmitter Increased||Area of Observed Effect|
|Acetylcholine (CDP-Choline is a direct precursor)||Neocortex, Hippocampus|
|Norepinephrine||Cerebral Cortex, Hypothalamus|
(CDP-Choline enhances tyrosine hydroxylase activity and inhibits dopamine reuptake)
MITOCHONDRIAL FUNCTION & BRAIN ENERGY
Nutritional management with citicoline has shown to improve mitochondrial health and brain energy via multiple mechanisms:
- Increases glucose uptake
- Restores Na(+)K(+) ATPase activity – Increases ATP
- Reduces free fatty acid release – Reduces Oxidative Stress
Nutritional management with Citicoline has been shown to
have neuroprotective effects including:
- Promotion of phospholipid metabolism
- Reduced oxidative stress
- May control excitotoxicity by reducing glutamate activity
- May increase expression of excitatory amino acid transporter-2 (EAAT-2)
- Increase glutathione synthesis
- Post-stroke neuroplasticity
- Increase expression of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1)
NOTE: The brain prefers CDP-choline for acetylcholine production and will take phospholipids from neuronal membranes if there is a deficit.
CDP-choline is a precursor for phosphatidylcholine as well as other phospholipids, including phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine. Nearly one-third of the gray matter is comprised of phosphatidylcholine.
Significant increases in phosphatidylcholine of up to 25% and increases in phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine levels have been demonstrated in animal studies with 90 days of oral supplementation of citicoline. Healthy older adults evaluated with magnetic resonance spectroscopy had increases in phosphatidylcholine synthesis in 6 weeks.