Brain Fog – Improved Attention & Focus
Improved Attentional Performance after nutritional supplementation of Citicoline in healthy ADULT WOMEN in 28 days ²
- Study findings indicate that citicoline supplementation was associated with improved attentional focus and inhibition, as measured by the CPT-II, in a group of healthy female adult volunteers.
- Individuals made fewer commission errors compared to those in the placebo group (p = 0.02) and trended toward making fewer omission errors (p = 0.06).
The Effect of Citicoline Supplementation on Motor Speed and Attention in ADOLESCENT MALES in 28 days ²
Improved performance on the Finger Tap Test after supplementation. * p < 0.05 Note. DH = Dominant Hand
Improved performance on the Ruff 2&7 Speed task after supplementation. * p < 0.05
Brain Fog – Improved Dopamine Status
Citicoline supplementation was associated with improved motor function and attentional abilities in healthy adolescent males.
Research has shown that citicoline administration improves attention in a variety of patient populations, including individuals with neurocognitive degeneration after a stroke 3,4 and elderly participants 5.
Brain Fog – Improved Memory
Citicoline Improves Verbal Memory in Aging (6)
- The 60 day crossover study showed that Citicoline significantly improves both immediate and delayed logical memory p<0.05
- Conducted at the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences of the MIT, 32 Healthy subjects with a relatively inefficient memory (i.e. below the average of a total of 94 subjects) took 2 g/ day of Citicoline or placebo for 60 days in a crossover study. This crossover study was preceded by a 90 day study with 1g/day Citicoline or placebo.
Studied at Harvard Medical School and McLean Hospital, it was determined that Citicoline is an endogenous intermediate in the biosynthesis of membrane phospholipids in brain cells. Citicoline stimulates the production of membrane phospholipids in brain cells. At the same time, citicoline reduces the degradation of phospholipids due to the decreased energy metabolism and blood circulation.
1 McGlade, E. et.al; Food and Nutrition Sciences, 2012, 3, 769-773
2 McGlade, E. et.al; Journal of Attention Disorders, 2015, 1-14
3 Conant, R. et.al; Alternative Medicine Review, 9, No.1, 2004, pp. 17-31
4 A. Davalos and J. Secades, Stroke, 42, No. 1, 2011, pp. S36-S39
5 Agnoli, A. et.al; Alzheimer’s Disease: Proceedings of the 5th Meeting of the International Study Group on the Pharmacology of Memory Disorders Associated with Aging, Birkhauser, Boston, 1989
6 Spiers PA, Myers D, Hochanadel GS, Lieberman HR, Wurtman RJ. Arch Neurol, 53: 441- 448, 1996
7 Babb SM, Appelmans KE, Renshaw PF, Wurtman RJ, Cohen BM. Psychopharmacology, 127: 88-94, 1996
8 Babb SM, Wald LL, Cohen BM, Villafuerte RA, Gruber SA, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Renshaw PF. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 161: 248-254, 2002