References

Clinical Research with Citicoline used in Cerenx (112)

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  • Lozano R, Fernández MV, Balagué A. Alteraciones neuropsíquicas del anciano: Evolución tras la administración de CDPcolina (citicolina). Med Clin (Barc), 87 (Supl. 1): 30-33, 1986
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  • Marcos T, Sanchez M. Citidin-5-difosfato de colina en anestesia general. Archivos de la Facultad de Medicina de Madrid, 35: 45-56, 1979
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  • Lopez F. La influencia del citidin difosfato de colina (somazina) en el recuperacion del estado de alerta. Phronesis, 28: 403-416, 1976
  • Marti Masso JF, Urtasun M. Citicoline in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Clin Ther, 13: 239-242, 1991
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  • Chinchilla A, Lopez-Ibor JJ. CDPcolina (citicolina) como terapia complementaria en pacientes esquizofrenicos ambulatorios tratados con neurolepticos depot. Med Clin (Barc), 87(Supl.1): 45-48, 1986
  • Espadaler JM. Ensayo de la CDPcolina en el tratamiento de los trastornos del aprendizaje del niño. Med Clin (Barc), 71: 357-361, 1978
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  • Eberhardt R, Gerstenbrand F et al. Estudio de la eficacia de la combinacion CDPcolina y levodopa mas un inhibidor de la decarboxilasa en pacientes con enfermedad de Parkinson. Med Clin (Barc), 87(Supl.1): 34-40, 1986
  • Poewe W, Gerstenbrand F. New trends in the therapy of Parkinson’s síndrome. A Agnoli y G Bertolani eds.: Acta de la 8ª reunion de la Lega Italiana per la Lotta contro il Morbo di Parkinson e le Malattie Extrapiramidali. Publ D Criavella, Roma, 1982; pp: 171-188
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  • Cacabelos R, Alvarez XA et al. Effect of CDP-choline on cognition and immune function in Alzheimer’s disease and multi-infarct dementia. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol, 2: 362-363, 1992
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  • Fernández-Novoa L, Alvarez XA, Franco-Maside A, Caamaño J, Cacabelos R. CDP-choline-induced blood histamine changes in Alzheimer’s disease. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 16: 279-284, 1994
  • Alvarez XA, Mouzo R, Pichel V, Perez P, Laredo M, Fernandez-Novoa L, Corzo L, Zas R, Alcaraz M, Secades JJ, Lozano R, Cacabelos R. Effects of citicoline on cognitive performance, brain bioelectrical activity and brain hemodynamics in Alzheimer’s disease patients: A double-blind placebo controlled study. Ann Psychiatry, 7: 331-352, 1999
  • Franco-Maside A, Caamaño J, Gómez MJ, Cacabelos R. Brain mapping activity and mental performance after chronic treatment with CDP-choline in Alzheimer’s disease. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 16: 597-607, 1994
  • Cohen BM, Renshaw PF, Stoll AL, Wurtman RJ, Yurgelun-Todd D, Babb SM. Decreased brain choline uptake in older adults. An in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. JAMA, 274: 902-907, 1995
  • Chinchilla A, Lopez-Ibor JJ et al. CDP-colina en la evolucion de las funciones mentales en el sindrome de abstinencia alcohólica. Psiquiat Biol, 2: 171-175, 1995
  • Cacabelos R, Caamaño J, Gómez MJ, Fernández-Novoa L, Franco-Maside A, Alvarez XA. Therapeutic effects of CDP-choline in Alzheimer’s disease. Cognition, brain mapping, cerebrovascular hemodynamics and immune factors. Ann NY Acad Sci, 777: 399-403, 1996
  • Spiers PA, Myers D, Hochanadel GS, Lieberman HR, Wurtman RJ. Citicoline improves verbal memory in aging. Arch Neurol, 53: 441-448, 1996
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  • Warach S, Benfield A et al. Reduction of lesion volumen in human stroke by citicoline detected by diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging: A pilot study. Ann Neurol, 40: 527-528, 1996
  • Bruhwyler J, Van Dorpe J, Geczy J. Multicentric open-label study of the efficacy and tolerability of citicoline in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction. Curr Ther Res, 58: 309-316, 1997
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  • Diaz Atienza J, Compam F et al. Neurophysiologic abnormalities in developmental dysphasias and response to CDP-choline. Adv Ther, 15: 8-13, 1998
  • Renshaw PF, Daniels S, Lundahl LH, Rogers V, Lukas SE. Short-term treatment with citicoline (CDP-choline) attenuates some measures of craving in cocaine-dependent subjects: a preliminary report. Psychopharmacology, 142: 132-138, 1999
  • Spiers PA, Hochanadel G. Citicoline for traumatic brain injury: Report of two cases, including my own. J Int Neuropsychol Soc, 5: 260-264, 1999
  • Clark WM, Williams BJ, Selzer KA, Zweifler RM, Sabounjian LA, Gammans RE. A randomized efficacy trial of citicoline in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Stroke, 30: 2592-2597, 1999
  • Leon-Carrion J, Dominguez-Roldan JM, Murillo-Cabezas F, Dominguez-Morales MR, Muñoz-Sanchez MA. Normalization of memory-related cerebral blood flow in severe traumatic brain injury patients and improvements of memory induced by citicholine (CDP-choline): the role of a pro-cognitive drug. ICRAN’99, Taipei (Taiwan), Noviembre, 1999
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  • Issayeva R, Pushkarev K. CDP-choline (ceraxon) treatment with hypoxia in the newborn infant. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 333 (Suppl 1): e561, 2013
  • Lay-Son Rivas L, Trujillo-Godoy O, Alvarado-Pastenes M. Encefalopatia tardia por monoxido de carbono de curso reversible en un paciente tratado con citicolina [Delayed-onset encephalopathy caused by carbon monoxide poisoning: Resolution in a patient treated with citicoline]. Neurologia. 2013 Dec 10. pii: S0213-4853(13)00245-4. doi: 10.1016/j.nrl.2013.09.003. [Epub ahead of print]
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  • Ovezov AM, Lobov MA, Nad’kina ED, Myatchin PS, Panteleeva MV, Knyazev AV. Citicoline in the prevention of postoperative cognitive dysfunction during total intravenous anesthesia. Annals of clinical and experimental neurology, 7(2):27-34, 2013
  • Shestakova MV, Alekhin DI, Kokorishvili MA, Sinitskiy AI, Evseeva YuD. Citicoline treatment in reconstructive operations of carotid arteries for prevention of reperfusion complications and cognitive disturbances in patients at risk. Nevrologicheskii Zhurnal, 2:47-53, 2014
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  • Zinkovsky ÀÊ, Musina LO, Zinkovsky KA, Moroseeva EA. Dynamics of change of infrared spectrum of blood serum of women with varying degrees of progression of epilepsy before and after ceraxon treatment. Modern Problems of Science and Education, 2:1-7, 2012
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Experimental Model Research (93)

  • Saligaut C, Daoust M, Moores N et al. Capture de dopamine striatale chez le rat: effets d’une hypoxie hypobare aigue et/ou d’un traitement oral par la cytidine diphosphocholine. Circulation et Metabolisme du Cerveau, 2: 33-42, 1984
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  • López-Coviella I, Agut J, Savci V, Ortiz JA, Wurtman RJ. Evidence that 5′-cytidinediphosphocholine can affect brain phospholipid composition by increasing choline and cytidine plasma levels. J Neurochem, 65: 889-894, 1995
  • López G-Coviella I, Agut J, Ortiz JA, Wurtman RJ. Effects of orally administered cytidine 5′-diphosphate choline on brain phospholipid content. J Nutr Biochem, 3: 313-315, 1992
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  • Romero A, Serratosa J, Sacristán A, Ortiz JA. High-resolution autoradiography in mouse brain 24 h after radiolabelled CDP-choline administration. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1056-1058, 1983
  • Romero A, Serratosa J, Sacristán A, Ortiz JA. High-resolution autoradiography in mouse brain and cerebellum 10 days after radiolabelled CDP-choline administration. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1058-1060, 1983
  • Agut J, Font E et al. Accion farmacologica de la CDPcolina oral en un modelo experimental de discinesia tardia en rata. Med Clin (Barc), 87(Supl.1): 14-18, 1986
  • Grau T, Romero A, Sacristán A, Ortiz JA. CDP-choline: Acute toxicity study. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1033-1034, 1983
  • Romero A, Grau T, Sacristán A, Ortiz JA. Study of subacute toxicity of CDP-choline after 30 days of oral administration to rats. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1035-1038, 1983
  • Romero A, Grau T, Sacristán A, Ortiz JA. CDP-choline: 6-month study on toxicity in dogs. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1038-1042, 1983
  • Lopez G-Coviella I, Agut J, Wurtman RJ. Effect of cytidine(5′)diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) on the total urinary excretion of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) by rats and humans. J Neural Transm, 66: 129-134, 1986
  • Cervós Navarro J, Lafuente JV. Effect of cytidine diphosphate choline on ultraviolet-induced brain edema. Adv Neurol, 52: 421-429, 1990
  • Algate DR, Beard DJ, Sacristán A, Ortiz JA, Davies JE. Study of the effects of oral administration of CDP-choline on EEG changes and lethality induced by epidural compression in the anesthetised cat. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1013-1016, 1983
  • Marti JL, Selles J et al. Antagonismo del coma barbiturico mediante productos alertizantes. Estudio experimental. Rev Esp Anest Rean, 25: 21-28, 1978
  • Tornos ME, Sacristan A, Ortiz JA. Estudio farmacologico de CDPcolina: Proteccion a la toxicidad en un modelo de hipoxia experimental [Pharmacological study of CDP-choline. Protection against toxicity in a model of experimental hypoxia]. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1022-1024, 1983
  • Petkov VD, Mosharrof AH, Petkov VV, Kehayov RA. Age-related differences in memory and in the memory effects of nootropic drugs. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg, 16: 28-36, 1990
  • Mosharrof AH, Petkov VD. Effects of citicholine and of the combination citicholine + piracetam on the memory (experiments on mice). Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg, 16: 25-31, 1990
  • Braso MA, Sacristan A, Ortiz JA. Action of CDP-choline by intraduodenal route on rat cardiorespiratory system. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1043-1045, 1983
  • Grau T, Romero A, Sacristán A, Ortiz JA. Study on the protection of CDP-choline against nicotine intoxication. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1025-1026, 1983
  • Tornos ME, Sacristan A, Ortiz JA. Pharmacological study of oral CDP-choline: Interaction with oxotremorine on the parasympathetic system. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1026-1029, 1983
  • Tornos ME, Sacristan A, Ortiz JA. Effect of oral CDP-choline on experimental withdrawal syndrome. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1018-1021, 1983
  • Sánchez MC, Fernández JM, Forné E, Castelló J, Sacristán A, Ortíz JA. CDP-choline: Physico-chemical characteristics. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1011-1012, 1983
  • Agut J, Font E et al. Accion de la CDPcolina oral sobre la hipotermia inducida por la apomorfina en ratas. Med Clin (Barc), 87(Supl.1): 11-13, 1986
  • Hamdorf G, Cervos-Navarro J. Therapeutic effect of orally applied CDP-choline in mild and severe degrees of normobaric and normocapnic degrees of hypoxia of rats. Arzneimittelforschung, 41: 1206-1210, 1991
  • Saligaut C, Boismare F. Tratamiento oral cronico con citidin-(5′)-difosfocolina de los efectos sobre el comportamiento y bioquimicos de una hipoxia. Med Clin (Barc), 87(Supl.1): 19-22, 1986
  • LaFuente JV, Cervós-Navarro J. Estudio por microgravimetria del efecto de la CDPcolina en el edema cerebral experimental inducido por radiaciones ultravioletas. Med Clin (Barc), 87(Supl.1): 5-8, 1986
  • Agut J, Font E et al. Accion de la CDPcolina sobre los niveles de los acidos homovanilico (HVA) y 3-4-dihidroxifenilacetico (DOPAC) en estriado de rata. Med Clin (Barc), 87(Supl.1): 9-10, 1986
  • Agut J, Ortiz JA. Effects of oral cytidine-(5′)-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) administration on the metabolism of phospholipids in rat brain during normobaric hypoxia. R Wurtman, Coskin y J Growdon eds.: Alzheimer’s disease: Advances in basic research and therapies, Zurich, 1987; pp: 327-332
  • Majem X, Bidon-Chanal A, Vila-Bado J. Estudio de los efectos del tratamiento oral con CDPcolina sobre los cambios inducidos por el edema encefalico experimental en el electroencefalograma de la rata no anestesiada. Med Clin (Barc), 87(Supl.1): 23-25, 1986
  • Agut J, Font E, Sacristán A, Ortiz JA. Dissimilar effects in acute toxicity of CDP-choline and choline. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1016-1018, 1983
  • Petkov VD, Konstantinova ER, Petkov VV, Vaglenova JV. Learning and memory in rats exposed pre- and postnatally to alcohol. An attempt at pharmacological control. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 13: 43-50, 1991
  • Alvarez XA, Sampedro C, Cacabelos R. Antiapoptotic effects of CDP-choline in a combined (Aß4/hypoperfusion) animal model of hippocampal neurodegeneration. Ann Psychiatry, 7: 147-156, 1999
  • Saligaut C, Daoust M, Moore N, Boismare F. Effects of hypoxia and cytidine (5′) diphosphocholine on the concentrations of dopamine, norepinephrine and metabolites in rat hypothalamus and striatum. Arch Int Pharmacodyn, 285: 25-33, 1987
  • Agut J, Font E, Sacristán A, Ortiz JA. Effect of oral CDP-choline on acrylamide-induced lesion. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1029-1033, 1983
  • Gimenez R, Raich J, Aguilar J. Changes in brain striatum dopamine and acetylcholine receptors induced by chronic CDP-choline treatment of aging mice. Br J Pharmacol, 104: 575-578, 1991
  • Agut J, Font E, Sacristán A, Ortiz JA. Radioactivity incorporation into different cerebral phospholipids after oral administration of 14C methyl CDP-choline. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1048-1050, 1983
  • Petkov VD, Kehayov RA, Mosharrof AH, Petkov VV, Getova D, Lazarova MB, Vaglenova J. Effects of cytidine diphosphate choline on rats with memory deficits. Arzneimittelforschung, 43: 822-828, 1993
  • Petkov VD, Milanov S, Petkov VV. Effects of CDP-choline and the nootropic drug meclofenoxate on age-related changes in the blood levels of prolactin and growth hormone. C R Acad Bulg Sci, 46: 137-139, 1993
  • Petkov VD, Konstantinova E, Petkov VV, Lazarova M, Petkova B. Modulation of the effects on learning and memory of nootropic drugs and central stimulants when applied together. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg, 17: 17-26, 1991
  • Pinardi G, Pelissier T, Kramer V, Paeile C, Miranda HF. Effects of CDP-choline on acetylcholine-induced relaxation of the perfused carotid vascular beds of the rat. Gen Pharmacol, 25: 635-638, 1994
  • Agut J, Font E, Sacristán A, Ortiz JA. Bioavailability of methyl-14C CDP-choline by oral route. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1045-1047, 1983
  • Crespo D, Verduga R, Fernández-Viadero C, Megías M. Structural changes induced by cytidine-5′-diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) chronic treatment in neurosecretory neurons of the supraoptic nucleus of aged CWF-mice. Mech Ageing Dev, 84: 183-193, 1995
  • Roda JE. Repartition macro et microscopique d’un oedeme cerebral vasogenique experimental. Symposium International: Souffrance cerebrale et precurseurs des phospholipides, Paris, 1980
  • Schäbitz WR, Weber J, Takano K, Sandage BW, Locke KW, Fisher M. The effects of prolonged treatment with citicoline in temporary experimental focal ischemia. J Neurol Sci, 138: 21-25, 1996
  • Aronowski J, Strong R, Grotta JC. Citicoline for treatment of experimental focal ischemia: Histologic and behavioral outcome. Neurol Res, 18: 570-574, 1996
  • Onal MZ, Li F, Tatlisumak T, Locke KW, Sandage BW Jr, Fisher M. Synergistic effects of citicoline and MK-801 in temporary experimental focal ischemia in rats. Stroke, 28: 1060-1065, 1997
  • Rosario P, Rubio I, De la Morena E. Effects of CDP-choline administration on in vivo release and biosynthesis of acetylcholine in hippocampus of ethanol-treated rats as studied by in vivo brain microdialysis. J Neural Transm, 103 (10): XLVI-XLVII, 1996
  • Aguilar J, Giménez R, Bachs O, Enrich C, Agut J. Cerebral subcellular distribution of CDP-choline and/or its metabolites after oral administration of methyl-14C CDP-choline. Arzneimittelforschung, 33: 1051-1053, 1983
  • Alvarez XA, Vecino B, Perea JE, Daniele D, Cacabelos R. Citicoline antagonizes bromacepam-induced amnesia in rats. Human Psychopharmacol, 12: 547-556, 1997
  • Bruhwyler J, Liegeois JF, Geczy J. Facilitatory effects of chronically administered citicoline on learning and memory processes in the dog. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry, 22: 115-128, 1998
  • Gimenez R, Aguilar J. Effects of CDP-choline administration on brain striatum platelet-activating factor in aging rats. Eur J Pharmacol, 344:149-152, 1998
  • Agut J, G-Coviella IL, Wurtman RJ. Cytidine(5′)Diphosphocholine enhances the ability of haloperidol to increases dopamine metabolites in the striatum of the rat and diminish stereotyped behaviour induced by apomorphine. Neuropharmacology, 23: 1403-1406, 1984
  • Miguel-Hidalgo JJ, Alvarez A, Cacabelos R. Plasticity of Congo red staining displayed subpopulations of neurons within the rat central nervous system. Cell Tissue Res, 293: 75-86, 1998
  • Clark W, Gunion-Rinker L, Lessov N, Hazel K. Citicoline treatment for experimental intracerebral hemorrhage in mice. Stroke, 29: 2136-2140, 1998
  • Knapp S, Wurtman RJ. Enhancement of free fatty acid incorporation into phospholipids by choline plus cytidine. Brain Res, 822: 52-59, 1999
  • Schäbitz WR, Li F, Irie K, Sandage BW Jr, Locke KW, Fisher M. Synergistic effects of a combination of low-dose basic fibroblast growth factor and citicoline after temporary experimental focal ischemia. Stroke, 30: 427-432, 1999
  • Andersen M, Overgaard K, Meden P, Boysen G, Choi SC. Effects of citicoline combined with thrombolytic therapy in a rat embolic stroke model. Stroke, 30: 1464-1471, 1999
  • Gimenez R, Soler S, Aguilar J. Cytidine diphosphate choline administration activates brain cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase in aged rats. Neurosci Lett, 273: 163-166, 1999
  • Alvarez XA, Sampedro C, Lozano R, Cacabelos R. Citicoline protects hippocampal neurons against apoptosis induced by brain beta-amyloid deposits plus cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 21: 535-540, 1999
  • Shuaib A, Yang Y, Li Q. Evaluating the efficacy of citicoline in embolic ischemic stroke in rats: neuroprotective effects when used alone or in combination with urokinase. Exp Neurol, 161: 733-739, 2000
  • Gimenez R, Aguilar J. Cytidine (5 ‘) diphosphocholine-induced decrease in cerebral platelet activating factor is due to inactivation of its synthesizing enzyme cholinephosphotransferase in aged rats. Neurosci Lett, 299: 209-212, 2001
  • Hamdorf G, Cervos-Navarro J, Muller R. Increase of survival time in experimental hypoxia by cytidine diphosphate choline. Arzneimittelforschung, 42: 421-424, 1992
  • Krupinski J, Ferrer I, Barrachina M, Secades JJ, Mercadal J, Lozano R. CDP-choline reduces pro-caspase and cleaved caspase-3 expression, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and specific PARP-cleaved products of caspase activation following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. Neuropharmacology, 42: 846-854, 2002
  • Petkov VD, Mosharrof AH, Kehayov R, Petkov VV, Konstantinova E, Getova D. Effect of CDP-choline on learning and memory processes in rodents. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 14: 593-605, 1992
  • Barrachina M, Secades J, Lozano R, Gómez-Santos C, Ambrosio S, Ferrer I. Citicoline increases glutathione redox ratio and reduces caspase-3 activation and cell death in staurosporine-treated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Brain Res, 957: 84-90, 2002
  • Mir C, Clotet J, Aledo R, Durany N, Argemí J, Lozano R, Cervós-Navarro J, Casals N. CDP-choline prevents glutamate-mediated cell death in cerebellar granule neurons. J Mol Neurosci, 20: 53-59, 2003
  • Sobrado M, Lopez MG, Carceller F, Garcia AG, Roda JM. Combined nimodipine and citicoline reduce infarct size, attenuate apoptosis and increase Bcl-2 expression after focal cerebral ischemia. Neuroscience, 118: 107-113, 2003
  • Barrachina M, Domínguez I, Ambrosio S, Secades J, Lozano R, Ferrer I. Neuroprotective effect of citicoline in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats and in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. J Neurol Sci, 215: 105-110, 2003
  • Teather LA, Wurtman RJ. Dietary cytidine (5′)-diphosphocholine supplementation protects against development of memory deficits in aging rats. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry , 27: 711-717, 2003
  • Gimenez R, Aguilar J. Effects of cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine on plasma homocysteine levels in rat. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol, 134: 271-276, 2003
  • Crespo D, Megias M, Fernandez-Viadero C, Verduga R. Chronic treatment with a precursor of cellular phosphatidylcholine ameliorates morphological and behavioral effects of aging in the rat hippocampus. Ann NY Acad Sci, 1019: 41-43, 2004
  • Teather LA, Wurtman RJ. Dietary CDP-choline supplementation prevents memory impairment caused by impoverished environmental conditions in rats. Learn Mem, 12:39-43, 2005
  • Hurtado O, Moro MA, Cárdenas A, Sánchez V, Fernández-Tomé P, Leza JC, Lorenzo P, Secades JJ, Lozano R, Dávalos A, Castillo J, Lizasoain I. Neuroprotection afforded by prior citicoline administration in experimental brain ischemia: effects on glutamate transport. Neurobiol Dis, 18: 336-345, 2005
  • Krupinski J, Slevin M, Badimon L. Citicoline inhibits MAP kinase signalling pathways after focal cerebral ischaemia. Neurochem Res, 30: 1067-1073, 2005
  • Alonso de Leciñana M, Gutierrez M, Roda JM, Carceller F, Diez-Tejedor E. Effect of combined therapy with thrombolysis and citicoline in a rat model of embolic stroke. J Neurol Sci, 247: 121-129, 2006
  • Mievis S, Levivier M, Vassart G, Brotchi J, Ledent C, Blum D. Citicoline is not protective in experimental models of Huntington’s disease. Neurobiol Aging, 28: 1944-1946, 2007
  • Hurtado O, Cardenas A, Pradillo JM, Morales JR, Ortego F, Sobrino T, Castillo J, Moro MA, Lizasoain I. A chronic treatment with CDP-choline improves functional recovery and increases neuronal plasticity after experimental stroke. Neurobiol Dis, 26: 105-111, 2007
  • Hurtado O, Pradillo JM, Fernández-López D, Morales JR, Sobrino T, Castillo J, Alborch E, Moro MA, Lizasoain I. Delayed post-ischemic administration of CDP-choline increases EAAT2 association to lipid rafts and affords neuroprotection in experimental stroke. Neurobiol Dis, 29: 123-131, 2008
  • Yilmaz MS, Coskun C, Yalcin M, Savci V. CDP-choline prevents cardiac arrhythmias and lethality induced by short-term myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in the rat: involvement of central muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol, 378: 293-301, 2008
  • Lee HJ, Kang JS, Kim YI. Citicoline Protects Against Cognitive Impairment in a Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion. J Clin Neurol, 5: 33-38, 2009
  • Ramos-Cabrer P, Agulla J, Argibay B, Pérez-Mato M, Castillo J. Serial MRI study of the enhanced therapeutic effects of liposome-encapsulated citicoline in cerebral ischemia. Int J Pharm, 405: 228-233, 2011
  • Gutiérrez-Fernández M, Rodríguez-Frutos B, Fuentes B, Vallejo-Cremades MT, Alvarez-Grech J, Expósito-Alcaide M, Díez-Tejedor E. CDP-choline treatment induces brain plasticity markers expression in experimental animal stroke. Neurochem Int, 60: 310-317, 2011
  • Diederich K, Frauenknecht K, Minnerup J, Schneider BK, Schmidt A, Altach E, Eggert V, Sommer CJ, Schäbitz WR. Citicoline Enhances Neuroregenerative Processes After Experimental Stroke in Rats. Stroke, 43: 1931-1940, 2012
  • Gutiérrez-Fernández M, Leciñana MA, Rodríguez-Frutos B, Ramos-Cejudo J, Roda JM, Díez-Tejedor E. CDP-choline at high doses is as effective as i.v. thrombolysis in experimental animal stroke. Neurol Res, 34: 649-656, 2012
  • Bustamante A, Giralt D, Garcia-Bonilla L, Campos M, Rosell A, Montaner J. Citicoline in pre-clinical animal models of stroke: a meta-analysis shows the optimal neuroprotective profile and the missing steps for jumping into a stroke clinical trial. J Neurochem, 123:217-225, 2012
  • Krupinski J, Abudawood M, Matou-Nasri S, Al-Baradie R, Petcu E, Justicia C, Planas A, Liu D, Rovira N, Grau-Slevin M, Secades J, Slevin M. Citicoline induces angiogenesis improving survival of vascular/human brain microvessel endothelial cells through pathways involving ERK1/2 and insulin receptor substrate-1. Vasc Cell. 2012 Dec 10;4(1):20. doi: 10.1186/2045-824X-4-20
  • Gutiérrez-Fernández M, Leciñana MA, Rodríguez-Frutos B, Ramos-Cejudo J, Roda JM, Díez-Tejedor E. CDP-choline at high doses is as effective as i.v. thrombolysis in experimental animal stroke. Neurol Res, 34: 649-656, 2012
  • Hurtado O, Hernández-Jiménez M, Zarruk JG, Cuartero MI, Ballesteros I, Camarero G, Moraga A, Pradillo JM, Moro MA, Lizasoain I. Citicoline (CDP-choline) increases Sirtuin1 expression concomitant to neuroprotection in experimental stroke. J Neurochem, 126:819-826, 2013
  • Hassan ES, Rasoul A, Khadim HA. Assessment of Citicoline protection against seizure induced in the rabbits. QMJ, 6(10):81-93, 2010
  • Jacotte-Simancas A, Costa-Miserachs D, Coll-Andreu M, Torras-Garcia M, Borlongan C, Portell-Cortés I. Effects of voluntary physical exercise, citicoline, and combined treatment on object recognition memory, neurogenesis and neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury in rats. J Neurotrauma, 32:739-751, 2015

Review Articles (13)

  • Secades JJ, Lorenzo JL. Citicoline: Pharmacological and Clinical Review, 2006 Update. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 28(Suppl B): 1-56, 2006
  • De la Morena E, Goldberg DM, Werner M. Citidíndifosfato de colina y biosíntesis de fosfolípidos. Citicolina: Bioquímica, neurofarmacología y clínica. E. De la Morena (Ed.), Salvat, Barcelona, 1985; 25-38
  • Jane F. Algunos aspectos de la farmacología de la citicolina. Citicolina: Bioquímica, neurofarmacología y clínica. E. De la Morena (Ed.), Salvat, Barcelona, 1985; 49-62
  • Davalos A, Secades J. Citicoline preclinical and clinical update 2009-2010. Stroke, 42 (Suppl 1): s36-s39, 2011
  • Hurtado O, Lizasoain I, Moro MÁ. Neuroprotection and recovery: recent data at the bench on citicoline. Stroke, 42 (Suppl 1): s33-s35, 2011
  • Secades JJ. Citicoline: pharmacological and clinical review, 2010 update. Rev Neurol, 52(Suppl 2): s1-s62, 2011
  • Secades JJ. Posible papel de la citicolina en la rehabilitacion tras un ictus: revision de la bibliografia [Probably role of citicoline in stroke rehabilitation: review of the literature]. Rev Neurol, 54: 173-179, 2012
  • Secades, Julio J. Deterioro cognitivo vascular. Abordaje desde Atención Primaria. Riesgo Vascular, 10(10):17, 2013 – 23º Congreso SAHTA, Granada 2013
  • Alvarez-Sabin J, Roman GC. The role of citicoline in neuroprotection and neurorepair in ischemic stroke. Brain Sci, 3:1395-1414, 2013
  • Secades JJ. Citicolina en el tratamiento del traumatismo craneoencefalico. Una revision sistematica y metanálisis de estudios clinicos controlados [Citicoline for Treatment of Head Trauma. Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Clinical Controlled Trials]. Trabajos Distinguidos Neurologia, 3:4-7, 2013
  • Overgaard K. The Effects of Citicoline on Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Review. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis, 23(7):1764-1769 , 2014
  • Krupinski J, Secades JJ, Shiraliyeva RK. Towards Effective Neurorehabilitation for Stroke Patients. Int J Phys Med Rehabil 2014, 2:2
  • Martynov MY, Gusev EI. Current knowledge on the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties of citicoline in acute ischemic stroke. J Exp Pharmacol, 7:17-28, 2015

Pharmacoeconomic Research (3)

  • Casado A, Secades JJ, Ibarz R, Herdman M, Brosa M. Cost-effectiveness of citicoline versus conventional treatment in acute ischemic stroke. Expert Rev Pharmacoeconomics Outcomes Res, 8: 151-157, 2008
  • Vorobyed P, Bezmelnitsyna L, Borisenko O. Cost-effectiveness of citicoline in patients with acute ischemic stroke in Russia. Value in Health, 14: A41, 2011
  • Ryazhenov VV, Gorokhova SG. Pharmacoeconomic benefits of citicoline in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke in Russia. Value in Health, 16:A519-A520, 2013

All Other Publications with Citicoline (452)

  • Petkov VD, Stancheva SL, Tocuschieva L, Petkov VV. Changes in brain biogenic monoamines induced by the nootropics drugs adafenoxate and meclofenoxate and by citicholine (experiments on rats). Gen Pharmacol, 21: 71-75, 1990
  • Bonavita E, Chioma V, Dall’Oca P, Fini C, Michelini M, Ruggi MR, Merli R, Ferro O. Studio in doppio cieco sull’azione della citicolina nell cervello senile [Double-blind study on the effect of citicholine on the senile brain]. Minerva Psichiatr, 24: 53-62, 1983
  • Corona GL, Santagostino G et al. Preliminary data on monoamine metabolite levels in cerebrospinal fluid and in urine during therapy in dementia. IRCS Med Sci, 11: 923-924, 1983
  • Cuccinota D, Romagnoli S, Godoli G et al. Comparison of sulfomucopolysaccharides and cytidine diphosphocholine in the treatment of multi-infarct dementia. A randomized double-blind test. Curr Ther Res, 43: 12-20, 1988
  • Giuffrida Stella AM, Alberghina M, Avola R et al. Effetto della somministrazione cronica di CDP-colina sul metabolismo degli acidi nucleici e delle proteine in diverse aree cerebrali durante l’invecchiamento. Giorn Geront, 36: 331-340, 1988
  • Fassio B, Fassio M, Pavesi G, Piantano E. La citicolina in psicogeriatría. Clin Europ (Italy), 21: 635-646, 1982
  • Schott B, Joyeux O. Valutazione dell’impiego della citicolina nella terapia di accidenti ischemici cerebrali. Giorn Ital Ricerche Clin Terap, 3: 56-60, 1982
  • Fukuda N, Ikeda K, Saji Y. Effects of CDP-choline on the neurological deficits in the rats with experimental cerebral ischemia. Jpn Pharmacol Ther, 13: 219-227, 1985
  • Manaka S, Sano K, Fuchinoue T, Sekino H. Mechanism of action of CDP-choline in parkinsonism. Experientia, 30: 179-180, 1974
  • Martinet M, Fontlup P, Pacheco H. Interaction of CDP-choline with synaptosomal transport of biogenic amines and their precursors in vitro and in vivo in the rat corpus striatum. Experientia, 34(9): 1197-1199, 1978
  • Martinet M, Fontlup P, Pacheco H. Effects of Cytidine-5′ diphosphocholine on norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin synthesis in various regions of the rat brain. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther, 239: 52-61, 1979
  • Stanzani S. Morphological effects of cytidin-diphosphate-choline on rats with lesions of the substantia nigra: study using horse fadish peroxidase method. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper, 57: 1830-1834, 1981
  • Shibuya M, Kageyama N, Taniguchi T, Hidaka H, Fujiwara M. Effects of CDP-choline on striatal dopamine level and behavior in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol, 31: 47-52, 1981
  • Daumal M, Gillon JC, Manoury B, Fockenier F. Réanimation cérébrale en hôpital général après pendaison [Cerebral resuscitation after hanging, in a general hospital]. Agressologie, 27: 927-928, 1986
  • Martinet M, Fontlup P, Pacheco H. Activation of soluble striatal tyrosine hydroxylase in the rat brain after CDPcholine administration. Biochem Pharmacol, 30: 539-541, 1981
  • Ceruso D, D’Andrea Petrelli L, Ciraolo O et al. Effect of cyticholine on pituitary function in the elderly. Acta Ther, 9: 41-44, 1983
  • Cohadon F, Rigoulet M et al. Treatment of vasogenic edema by CDP-choline, a metabolic precursor of phospholipids (experimental and clinical data). Conf Recent Prog T Brain Edema Proc Lit Symp Brain Edema, 5th: 691-700, 1984
  • Cohadon F, Richer E. CDP-choline in severe traumatic coma: A double blind study. V Zappia et al. eds.: “Novel biochemical, pharmacological and clinical aspects of cytidinediphosphocholine”. Elsevier Science PC, 1985; pp: 299-303
  • Cohadon F, Rigoulet M et al. L’activité membranaire dans la souffrance cerebrale. Altérations des ATPases membranaires dans l’oedème cérébrale vasogénique. Restauration par un précurseur des phospholipids. Symposium International: Souffrance cérébrale et précurseurs des phospholipides, París, 18 Enero 1980
  • Deleuze R, Huguenard P et al. Effets de la CDP-choline sur le rapport lactates/pyruvates dans le LCR en cas de souffrance cérébrale grave. Com Ren Ther, 4(36): 11-18, 1985
  • Araki O, Ishii S, Kondo Y. Biochemical studies of head injury and brain edema. Jpn J Med Prog, 48: 519-539, 1961
  • Kondo Y. Experimental study of the therapeutic use of cytidine nucleotides for brain injury. Arch Jpn Chir, Bd 32, 1968
  • Moriyama M, Tsukumo T, Nakagawa Y. Effects of CDP-choline on head trauma. Gendai No Rinsho, 1: 114-120, 1967
  • Oka M, Oku N et al. The effects of cytidine diphosphate choline (CDP-choline) on patients with head injury. Shinryo to Shinyaku, 3(7): 1101-1104
  • Raggueneau JL, Jarrige B. Enquête nationale sur les suites des traumatismes crâniens graves: Analyse des 219 traumatismes traités par la CDP-choline [National inquiry on the outcome of severe head injuries: analysis of 921 injured patients treated with CDP-choline]. Agressologie, 29: 439-443, 1988
  • Clendenon NR, Palayoor ST, Gordon WA. Influence of CDP-choline on ATPase activity in acute experimental spinal cord trauma. V Zappia et al. eds.:”Novel biochemical, pharmacological and clinical aspects of cytidinediphosphocholine”. Elsevier Science PC, 1985; pp: 275-284
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Cerenx® capsules are indicated for the specific dietary requirements of patients under treatment for early memory loss, ictus, or Parkinson’s disease.